Copper tubes are composed of 99.9% pure copper and small quantities of alloying elements in accordance with standards published by ASTM. They are available in both hard and soft tempers, the latter meaning that the tube has been annealed to soften it. Hard tubing is joined by capillary fittings. Soft tubing can be joined in a variety of additional ways, including compression fittings and flaring. Both are produced as seamless constructions. Copper tubes are used in plumbing, HVAC, refrigeration, medical-gas delivery, compressed-air systems, and cryogenic systems. In addition to plain copper tubes, tubes are available in specialty alloys. There is some inconsistency in the terminology for copper tubes. When the product is formed into coils, it is sometimes referred to as copper tubing owing to the increase in flexibility and the ability to bend the material more readily. But that distinction is not by any means a universally practiced or accepted one. In addition, some of the rigid wall straight lengths of copper tube are sometimes referred to as copper pipe. The use of these terms may vary from supplier to supplier. These tubes are alike except for differences in wall thickness...