Symbols of Monarchy: the orb and sceptre • The Crown Chronicles

Seen as two of the most authoritative Monarchical symbols, the orb and sceptre are used at the coronation of each new Sovereign, full of symbolism and power. But why are they used and what do they mean? The Sovereign’s Orb, as this part of the Crown Jewels is officially named, is a symbol of Godly power. A cross above a globe, it represents ‘Christ’s dominion over the world’, as the Monarch is God’s representative on Earth. Made for Charles II’s coronation in 1661, the orb is a 30cm-wide hollow gold sphere, mounted with nine emeralds, 18 rubies, nine sapphires, 365 diamonds, 375 pearls, one amethyst and one glass stone. The pearls divide the orb into three sections, which represent the three continents medieval rulers believed existed. The orb weighs 1.32 kg (roughly 43 oz). The Sovereign’s Orb – part of the Crown Jewels – features hundreds of precious stones and represents God’s power on Earth (Royal Collection Trust/© Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II 2016) Charles II spent £1,150 to have this single piece created by Royal goldsmith Robert Viner, after Oliver Cromwell melted down the Crown Jewels during the Interregnum of 1649-1660; Garrard fitted the stones. Originally, the orb...

The hose clamp for all occasions…including when tracking walruses

British manufacturer JCS gives Torque its expert view on the potential of the humble worm drive hose clip… As an engineer in the field, there is nothing more infuriating than having the wrong size or type of fitting to complete the job. It is impossible to carry every component for every eventuality, not least in the fluid handling industry with an extensive list of hose clamp types. So how do engineers choose what to stock in tool boxes? Critically, many hose clamps have been designed to do a specific job at the lowest possible price so many manufacturers will use clamps only suitable for a certain size of hose. What’s needed is a strong, easy-to-use clamp with a large adjustment range to cover many different hose sizes. The only clamp to fulfil all these criteria is the humble worm drive hose clip. How can we be sure the worm drive clip is up to the job? For standard duty clips there are different standards depending on country and industry. Operating requirements for the British Standard BS5315 far exceed other standards and all JCS Hi-Grip products – Zinc Plated Mild Steel, BS.304 and BS.316 Stainless Steel – carry the BSI Kitemark. JCS internal standards are set at least 2...